Indigenous peoples can be roughly divided into the Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, and in the southwest, the Sudanese groups. Nilotic people are the Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, Murle, Kachiopo, Jie, Anyuak, Acholi, Maban, Kuma, Lou (Jur), Bango, Bai Ndogo, Gulu, Endri, Forgee, Chod (Jur), Khara, Ngorgule, Forugi, Siri, Zandi, Benga, Agar, Pakam, Gok, CIEC, Aliap, Hopi, Guere, Atuot, Apaak, Lango, Pari, and the Otuho AJAA. The Nilo-Hamitic groups include the Bari, Mundari, Kakwa, Pojulu, Nyangwara, Kuku, Latuko, Lokoya, Toposa, Buya, Lopit, Kuku, Kakwa, Nyabgwara, Tennet, Lopit and Didinga people. The southwestern Sudanese group includes the Kresh, Balanda, Banda, Ndogo, Zande, Madi, Olubo, Murus, Mundu, Baka and the Avukaya Makaraka.

The famous long-horned cattle is known worldwide for its impressive height.

The famous long-horned cattle is known worldwide for its impressive height.

The South Sudanese communities generally live in semi-independent farms and establish their villages in which usually live close and extended relatives. Their societies in septs or clans are led by a king or chief, depending on the structure of each ethnic community. Southern Sudan has Christianity, Islam and indigenous religions. Some communities also believe in the power of spirits. Consequently, soothsayers, rainmakers or spear-masters are revered in these communities.